|Bekhtereva Natalya Petrovna
Research Manager, the Institute of Human Brain; Head of a research group of thinking, creativity and conscious neurophysiology; Doctor of medical sciences, Professor, Academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, laureate of USSR State Award, foreign member of the Austrian and Finnish Academies of Sciences, the American Academy of Medicine and Psychiatry, the International Academy of Ecology, Human and Nature Safety; an honoured member of the Hungarian Electrophysiological Association, an honoured member of the Czechoslovakian Neurophysiological and Neurosurgical associations named after Purkinye, an honoured scientific consultant of the managing committee in the American Biographical Institute, an honoured member of the Deliberative Committee of Women-Workers of Science and Culture of the managing committee in the American Biographical Institute.
For her achievements in human brain physiology Bekhtereva has got a lot of international scientific awards: the Medal of Mac Calloch (USA), the Medal of Hans Berger (Germany), the Medal of the Bulgarian Association of Scientific Workers, the Medal of Honour 2000 (the American Biographical Institute); for a great contribution into development of psychophysiology and neuro-sciences she was awarded with the "Award of the Century" by the International Organization of Psychophysiology; has a medal "For Achievements in Ecology" (the International Academy of Ecology, Human and Nature Safety).
The small planet No. 6074 of the Solar System is named after Bekhtereva. In 1998 awarded with the golden medal of V.M. Bekhterev (the Russian Academy of Sciences), in 1999 - with the sign of High Public Recognition, Honour and Dignity "Powerful Russia", in 2000 - with the Pavlov Prize (established by the St. Petersburg Government and the St. Petersburg Centre of the Russian Academy of Science).
The state awards include: the Order of Lenin, the Order of Labour Red Banner, the Order "Sign of Honour", the Order of Nations' Friendship, the Order "For Contribution into National Science" of the forth degree, medals.
Bekhtereva was born in Leningrad, on July 7, 1924. In 1947 graduated from the Leningrad First Medical Institute named after Academician Pavlov and undertook her post-graduate studies at the Institute of physiology. Then worked as a researcher at the Institute of Experimental Medicine (1950-1954). In 1951 got a degree of Candidate of Biological Sciences; in 1959 became Doctor of Medicine. In 1954-1962 worked as a senior staff scientist, the Head of the laboratory, Deputy Director of the Leningrad Research Institute of Neurosurgery. In 1962-1990 - the Head of the Department, Deputy Director of Scientific work, Acting Director, Director, the Research Institute of Experimental Medicine. Since 1990 - Research Manager of the Institute of Human Brain, Head of a research group of thinking, creativity and conscious neurophysiology.
Bekhtereva worked out a complex method to study structural and functional organization principles of human brain, a methodology to study brain mechanisms of thinking, memory, emotions, creativity. Her theory of organisation of the thinking process as a system of flexible and rigid units was fully proved. The property of neutrons from the cerebrum subcortical areas to react upon speech meaning and act as units of thinking system was registered as an invention.
Under direction of Bekhtereva a new branch in neurology and surgery was formed - stereotaxis neurology, with development of the newest technologies of computer stereotaxis.
Bektereva's theory of a stable pathological condition of the brain as an adaptation base for many chronic nervous system ailments has opened principally new opportunities in treatment of these diseases.
Her methods of punctual electric stimulation of cerebrum subcortical and cortical areas, neuraxis, visual and auditory nerves are practised as an exceptionally merciful way to treat serious chronic diseases of a central nervous system.
Studied and formulated the principles for brain activity reliability; discovered a mechanism for thinking optimisation - detector of faults (1968, etc.). Foreign investigations of this matter relate to 1993.
Bekhtereva proposed a principally new approach to studying of brain functioning principles and mechanisms, both health and diseased, based on multiyear experience of complex neurophysiologic studies and positron emission tomography. To realise this approach the Centre "Brain" and the Institute of the Human Brain were established in 1990 based on early founded Department of Human Neurophysiology (1962) and Clinics of Functional Neurosurgery and Neurology (1980).
Bekhtereva is the author of more than 360 scientific works (more than 130 of them are published in foreign periodicals), including 14 monographs (4 of them are published abroad), of many chapters in Russian and foreign books on physiology.
Bekhtereva gave lectures and reported at many congresses, symposiums, conferences in Australia, Austria, England, Bulgaria, Hungary, Germany, Italy, Spain, India, Canada, China, Netherlands, Norway, USA, France, Finland, Sweden, Japan.
Vice-President of the International Association of Physiological Sciences (1974-1980); Vice-President of the International Organization of Psychophysiology (1982-1994); Chief Editor of the International Magazine Psychophysiology (1982-1994); Chief Editor of the Human Physiology (a journal of the Russian Academy of Sciences).